LİFE STYLE
MONUMENTS AND
NATURAL PARKS
FASHİON
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TURKEY
ROMANIA
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ART
TURKEY
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1.1.About fashion
Fashion refers to the styles and customs prevalent at a given time. In its most common usage, "fashion" exemplifies the appearances of clothing, but the term encompasses more. Many fashions are popular in many cultures at any given time. Important is the idea that the course of design and fashion will change more rapidly than the culture as a whole. The terms "fashionable" and "unfashionable" were employed to describe whether someone or something fits in with the current or even not so current, popular mode of expression. The term "fashion" is frequently used in a positive sense, as a synonym for glamour, beauty and style. In this sense, fashions are a sort of communal art, through which a culture examines its notions of beauty and goodness. The term "fashion" is also sometimes used in a negative sense, as a synonym for fads and trends, and materialism.
Fashion is something we deal with everyday. Even people who say they don't care what they wear choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day.
Fashion is a language which tells a story about the person who wears it.

1.2.History of fashion
The first designer who was not merely a dressmaker was Charles Frederick Worth (1826–1895). Before the former draper set up his maison couture fashion house in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous people, and high fashion descended from style worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images alone could be presented to clients much more cheaply than by producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked the design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy.
One certain thing in the fashion world is change. We are constantly being bombarded with new fashion ideas from music, videos, books, and television. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. Ray-Ban sold more sunglasses after the movie Men in Black. Sometimes a trend is world-wide. Back in the 1950s, teenagers everywhere dressed like Elvis Presley. Musicians and other cultural icons have always influenced what we're wearing, but so have political figures and royalty. Newspapers and magazines report on what Hillary Clinton wears. The recent death of Diana, the Princess of Wales, was a severe blow to the high fashion world, where her clothes were daily news.
Even folks in the 1700s pored over fashion magazines to see the latest styles. Women and dressmakers outside the French court relied on sketches to see what was going on. The famous French King Louis XIV said that fashion is a mirror. Louis himself was known for his style, which tended towards extravagant laces and velvets.
Also, fashion can be a big business! May you ask why?
This is the answer:
More people are involved in the buying, selling and production of clothing than any other business in the world. Everyday, millions of workers design, sew, glue, dye, and transport clothing to stores. Ads on buses, billboards and magazines give us ideas about what to wear, consciously, or subconsciously.
Clothing can be used as a political weapon. In nineteenth century England, laws prohibited people from wearing clothes produced in France. During twentieth century communist revolutions, uniforms were used to abolish class and race distinctions.In 1960 made it to the runways of Paris, or how blue jeans became so popular in the U.S., or how hip-hop made it from the streets of the Bronx to the Haute Couture fashion shows of London and Milan.
It's easy to see what's popular by watching sit-coms on television: the bare mid-riffs and athletic clothes of 90210, the baggy pants of The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. But the direction of fashion relies on "plugged-in" individuals to react to events, and trends in music, art and books.

1.3.Early twentieth century
Throughout the early 20th century, practically all high fashion originated in Paris, and to a lesser extent London. Fashion magazines from other countries sent editors to the Paris fashion shows. Department stores sent buyers to the Paris shows, where they purchased garments to copy (and openly stole the style lines and trim details of others). Both made-to-measure salons and ready-to-wear departments featured the latest Paris trends, adapted to the stores' assumptions about the lifestyles and pocket books of their targeted customers.
Around the start of the twentieth century fashion style magazines began to include photographs and became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators - among them Paul Iribe, Georges Lepape, Erté, and George Barbier - drew exquisite fashion plates for these publications, which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du bon ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925 (with the exception of the war years).
Fashion is revealing. Clothes reveal what groups people are in. In high school, groups have names: "goths, skaters, preps, herbs." Styles show who you are, but they also create stereotypes and distance between groups. For instance, a businessman might look at a boy with green hair and multiple piercings as a freak and outsider. But to another person, the boy is a strict conformist. He dresses a certain way to deliver the message of rebellion and separation, but within that group, the look is uniform. Acceptance or rejection of a style is a reaction to the society we live in.
High fashion is the style of a small group of men and women with a certain taste and authority in the fashion world. People of wealth and position, buyers for major department stores, editors and writers for fashion magazines are all part of Haute Couture ("High Fashion" in French).
Some of these expensive and often artistic fashions may triumph and become the fashion for the larger majority. Most stay on the runway.
Popular fashions are close to impossible to trace. No one can tell how the short skirts and boots worn by teenagers in England
Once identified, fashions begin to change.In the early 1990s, the tight lycra or black leather mini skirt, also known as a tube skirt, which began as a trend in the mid-1980s, continued to be popular, especially in Europe. These were often paired with long, fitted blazers, which would continue to be worn throughout the decade. Tank tops, often of silk or synthetic silk were in style. The cinch-belt was a trendy accessory. Mini dresses in Lycra were also worn, and these often featured built-in bra cups. Sequined and lace cocktail dresses were also briefly popular in 1990-1991.
Inspired by Michelle Pfeiffer's performance of Catwoman in the 1992 film Batman Returns, the catsuit, enjoyed popularity. British singer Victoria Beckham would later be seen wearing a black catsuit in several Spice Girls videos. These were usually made of latex, PVC, or Spandex and often worn with high-heeled boots. From the beginning of the decade, boots were to be popular winter footwear throughout the 1990s.The black leather jacket for men and women was a popular trend. As in the previous decade, the American singer Madonna continued to be a fashion inspiration for girls and young women.Belly button piercing became a hit in 1991 among teenage girls and young women. This led to the introduction of belly shirts that left the belly uncovered to expose the belly button. Other types of body piercing became popular later in the decade, and lasted into the 2000s.
In the mid 1990s, platform shoes made a come-back for women and girls. Other types of heavy shoes and boots with thick heels were also worn. Along with the shoes, flared jeans and trousers appeared on the fashion scene. In Europe, slinky, floor-length dresses, often made of Lycra, were worn in the daytime as well as the evening. A major influence on British fashion was the all-girl pop group The Spice Girls. Diana, Princess of Wales was also a fashion icon. The 1990s was the decade of the supermodel when fashion models such as Kate Moss, Claudia Schiffer, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, and Linda Evangelista became international celebrities.
In 1997, cords also became popular in colors such as black, tan, and gray. Corduroy continued as a trend through 2001. The rise of "seventies revival" can be traced back to the cult classic Dazed and Confused, which gained its cult status during this period. Hair for girls was long, straight and worn with the central parting which had been fashionable in the late 1960s and 1970s, and obsolete in the 1980s. Also, most teenagers during this period were born in, and had some personal knowledge of the seventies, albeit brief.
The early 2000s consisted of a collaboration of clothes from the last 40 years up until the new millennium. Most of it also retained much from the late 90's.
Within Hip Hop clothing, Denim-jean jackets with matching jeans were popular,along with track suits (primarily made of fleece that matched top and bottom usually worn with a headband for guys).
Bandanas with rhinestones were popular from late 2000 to early 2002.
Phat farm shoes and apparel were extremely popular during this time
Within the mainstream, wristbands compromised of three colours were in use.(Red,Blue and White or the Rasta coloured - Red,Green and Yellow) (2003)Trucker hats and vintage t-shirts from American Eagle and its many counterparts were high in popularity (2003).
During most of the early and mid 2000s, it was unfashionable to wear formal clothing unless it was in the business world, church, and special events due to the popularity of the "smart casual" style.This changed in the autumn of 2006, when the power suit received worldwide popularity amongst young men for its structured design.
Sagging, popularised by rappers, lost its appeal around 2006 as expensive, close-fitting designer jeans rose in popularity, particularly amongst men. Baggy and loose styles of the 90's gave way to bootcut and flare jeans popularised by 7 for all Mankind, True Religion, Rock & Republic and Diesel
Men and Women began to wear skinny-fit lowrise jeans that became even more popular later in the decade as jeans' waistlines were cut as low as possible. Hip- hugging, denim mini-skirts were also worn.
In Hip Hop, the throwback jersey and baggy pants (popular in the 90's to 2003) was replaced with the more "Grown Man" Look which was highly popularized and brought in by controversial rapper, Kanye West.
Dickie pants amongst hip hop fashion became popular in 2005.
Japanese kimonos and lacquer jewelry came in during 2006, inspired by the film release of Memoirs of a Geisha.
2007 saw a return of leggings for women. These were worn with long, fitted tunic tops, or baby-doll dresses and shirts with empire waists. As in the 1980s, they were sometimes paired with mini skirts. Purple and mustard yellow were the fashionable colours. In 2007, ballerina flats returned, and the toes of shoes were rounded, replacing the pointed-toed shoe popular in the middle of the decade
In 2008 the denim waistcoat became a popular feminine fashion accessory.
Deck shoes, specifically the Sperry Top-Sider brand, become popular with teenagers and college students in the spring of 2007 and have remained popular into 2009.

1.4.Is it really important?
Fashion is a means of self-expression that allows people to try on many roles in life. Whether you prefer hip-hop or Chanel-chic, fashion accommodates the chameleon in all of us. It's a way of celebrating the diversity and variety of the world in which we live. Fashion is about change which is necessary to keep life interesting.
It's also a mirror of sorts on society. It's a way of measuring a mood that can be useful in many aspects, culturally, socially even psychologically. At the same time, fashion shouldn't be taken too seriously or you lose the fun of it.
Life is a short cycle. One needs to feel happy about what one does. Fashion is a part of life where people try to enhance the beauty. A good fashionable wear makes one happy, doesn’t it? It’s just like combing your hair properly. A dishevelled look hardly impresses any one. And we must also state the fact that updating exterior should be equally complimented with interior. Stale mind with current fashion will lead to disharmony.
What is the need of great business attire? It is indeed a very difficult question. But it can be said that in this changing environment it is becoming more and more important to have a suave presence. On the other hand, when you have to make good impressions in the business and corporate world you shall have to be appropriately dressed. Remember that a polished image is of highly importance in a highly competitive business environment and of more significance in case of career advancement, if not more! Therefore, it is the high time for the aspirant to have a look at the business attire and be conscious of the image he/she is presenting.

2.1.Fashion designers
Everyone wants to be different and exclusive, that's why people often look for and buy designer clothes. However, there are thousands of famous designers' brands and fashionable clothes.
Here are the 10 most famous designers in the world:
Giorgio Armani
Armani - the master of elegance. One of the best Giorgio Armani quotes to describe his point of view is: "when I think about elegance, I think of how one achieves it only by silencing loud trends." Goods under his brand are not changing drastically every season - the same elegant and tailored style flows from line to line, taking the best current cultural news. Fashion always leaves a lot of space for interpretation. Style is not created by Armani; style is your own luxury created by using Armani.
Versace:
Versace - the master of luxury. Like all other famous designer brands, Versace has a few design lines and some of them are oriented at casual men and women apparel, but he is much more known as a creator of marvellous and eye-catching luxury jewellery, apparel and accessories designs. Many famous world actors, music stars and other celebrities wear Versace, because this style makes them always look exceptionally great, fashionable, stylish, sexy and classy.
Calvin Klein:
Calvin Klein - the master of urban and sophisticated style. One of the main ideas of this designer  is  "I've always had a clear design philosophy and point of view about being modern, sophisticated, sexy, clean and minimal." Calvin Klein is one of the best known designer brands of the world and all this was reached due to his unique style oriented to practical design clothes without exaggerated jewellery and other accessories. He was the first designer who created unisex fragrance "CK One" and the first line of designer jeans is also under the label of Calvin Klein.
Prada:
Prada - the master of minimalism. If you want to look classic, fashionable and stylish at the same time without gaining the attention of everyone around - choose Prada. This brand gives you the fine taste lines which are acceptable for a very broad range of people, not depending on their age or position in society. Prada always looks good because of its minimalistic designs, few contrasting colors, simple patterns and innovative fabrics.
Missoni:
Missoni - the master of geometry, stripes, colorful patterns and wide range of fabrics. The numbers are incredible - there are at least forty colors and twenty different materials used in designing. All these exceptional features of Missoni fashion are often supplemented with Lurex and metallic elements which give us a feeling of elegance and timeless chic.
Chanel:
Chanel - the master of prestige. Chanel is a brand that represents finest quality luxury goods which are usually very rare and reflect a very high class. Details and feminine accessories take a very important place in Chanel designs so the style becomes audacious, passionate, visionary and unique. Everything under Chanel labels must be perfect and classy.
D&G:
Dolce & Gabbana - the master of fresh and funky designs. This brand is known for innovative ideas that make their designs look very modern and youthful. They use a wide palette of colors, materials and patterns that make goods suitable for urban and fast lifestyle people.
Gucci:
Gucci - the master of splendid leather goods. Gucci is known for its luxury designs and is one of the best known names in prestigious designer tops. Though there are lines of clothing, sunglasses and all other accessories, the best from Gucci are the leather goods - handbags and purses - which always have interesting details and prove a unique taste.

3.1.Our famous designers:
Catalin Botezatu is one of the best designers in Romania, also among the few who can take pride in numerous fashion shows held in the country and abroad, from Las Vegas (Hard Rock Hotel in the "supermodel" organized by the famous Ford agency), the Windock in Namibia, Sun City in South Africa, Iceland, Indonesia and in all major capitals in Europe.

 

Irina Marinescu: She is a designer that has appeared from the need of talking differently about  fashion in Romania. In a world of inbreeded organza outfits, wearing the signatures of “couturiers”, in a city where the mini skirt was proclaimed national flag, there was a need for an alternative. So came to life the so called “new wave of designers”, a happy accident in the Romanian fashion. The most powerful “voice” of this movement was Irina’s.Her style is very clean and simple with practical and versatile outfits.

Agnes Toma: Any representation of the beautiful dream wedding, and, consequently, a dress for the bride who is up to the expectations of an event that is happening once in a lifetime.     
The most important proposal clothes are Fragile, Lolita, Love full, Business chic. Her style is characterized by feminity with stylish accents, slightly retro, modern, romantic, sensual, simple and well studied - but by design, her polished long lines, serving aesthetic silhouettes and an impeccable execution, care for details, precious materials and delicacy are on the same wavelength with other international trends in the field.  Last but not least we have to mention the fickleness: the collection is coordinated so as to provide by mixing and offering accesories, multiple possibilities in the composition of a custom style, but closer to what women today want to express through images.

 

Lena Criveanu: She has been working with different famous Romanian designers, these experiences contributing to her professional formation and to defining a personal, distinctive style. The originality of the garments is emphasized by the imprinted elements that individualize each creation – the concept of the collections representing the personal expression of Lena Criveanu on femininity.

Ana-Maria Lungu: The style is refined and simple specific categories avoiding any form of loading.She prefers natural materials (fabric, wool, cotton) with retro cuts.Ana Maria’s  originality consists in her creativity, from clothes reminding you of old Paris and reaching to the madness refined.

 

Alina Botea: She is one of the most talented young designers of the moment. A designer’s value is not only creating the clothes to sell, but also her creativity in designing very feminine clothes that express the personality of the people who wear them.

Lucian Pop: he suggested a playful style, a style that is mainly defined by rebellion, off-hand, but through a profound reflection on the role of the designer, devalued in our contemporary image of superficiality. His style is extremely marked the spirit of "Guerilla fashion”.

Romanitza Claudia Iovan: Former model, famous designer and business woman, there are few worlds left to conquer for Romanitza Claudia Iovan, founder and head of "Romanitza" fashion house, one of the most successful Romanian trade marks in the field. She has her own style and her reputation grows everywhere. She is also a business woman good enough to be among the most popular designers in Romania.

Mihai Albu: He is the most famous Romanian designers in the accessory fashion industry. Shoes and bags that bear the name are appreciated by the most important fashion designers.

 

3.2.Trends in Romanian fashion
In 2009 fashion includes: Fine materials, well defined lines and stripes, these being some of the trends in fashion for spring / summer 2009.    
Collections Spring / Summer 2009, presented by famous fashion houses, emphasize romance and femininity.Cheerful colors, pastels, gray shades and strong, funny prints, polka dots and stripes, lace or natural materials combined with luxury accessories, these are some of the trends suggested by developers. An original look can be assured by wearing a belt with a buckle in copper or gold, combining colors and shapes.
The figure is very feminine and the diva like, urban glamor and the romantic chique are based on the fashion of the early `40. Notice is given by retro lace and ethereal evening dresses, made of muslin or organza. For added femininity, designers recommended early 40’s corsettes. A must-have of the season are the shoes whit thick soles and high heels. Evening dresses are complemented by discreet bags, or large and colorful bags.
Accessories play an extremely important part.

 

The fashion of 2009 is very generous in this respect. It brought some news, but mainly it preserves the same fashion lines of the last season. The source of inspiration for 2009 is the Hippy style of the 80s, the accesories are very loaded, the style is less pompous and there are many folk influences. The return to the past, the costumes of old times, combined with modern elements, will be trendy this year.
The trends are very romantic, inspired by Napoleon's time, current designers making a connection between the past and the present.
As for the color of fabrics, inspiration comes mainly from the folklore, where colors are alive and well outlined. The trendiest colors will be darker shades such as brown, blue and gold and white and pastel colors for the summer colors.          
Favoured fabrics are those that are heavy, looking old and dusty. The shades of velvet are garmented with shiny ornaments. The materials are embroidered and display painted motifs and images.

 

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fashion
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/infocus/fashion/whatisfashion.html